Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death, killing some 18 million people globally, costing more than $320 billion annually in the USA alone. About 2/3 of these deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes, with atherosclerosis the key pathology. Although the causes of CVDs continue to be debated, it is generally accepted in the literature that atherosclerotic CVDs are inflammatory diseases with elevated oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is due to the imbalance of excessive oxidants (toxins) and deficient antioxidants. The resulting deficiency of vitamin C, a primary antioxidant, leads to impairment of collagen synthesis. Collagen plays a critical role in the integrity of arterial walls. Collagen deficiency results in arterial wall damage and an inflammatory response leading to atherosclerosis and associated pathologies including coronary artery stenosis and occlusion. Read more.